The Tafsir of Surah Iqtarabat As-Sa`ah
The Tafsir of Surah Iqtarabat As-Sa`ah


(Chapter - 54)
(Chapter - 54)


Which was revealed in Makkah
Which was revealed in Makkah

The Hadith of Abu Waqid preceded, in which it is mentioned that the Messenger of Allah would recite Surah Qaf (chapter 53) and Iqtarabat As-Sa`ah (Al-Qamar, chapter 54), during (the `Id Prayers of) Al-Adha and Al-Fitr. The Prophet used to recite these two Surahs during major gatherings and occasions because they contain Allah's promises and warnings, and information about the origin of creation, Resurrection, Tawhid, the affirmation of prophethood, and so forth among the great objectives.

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

(1. The Hour has drawn near, and the moon has been cleft asunder.) (2. And if they see an Ayah, they turn away and say: "This is magic, Mustamir.'') (3. They denied and followed their own lusts. And every matter will be settled.) (4. And indeed there has come to them news wherein there is Muzdajar.) (5. Perfect wisdom, but warners benefit them not.)


The Hour draws near; the cleaving of the Moon
The Hour draws near; the cleaving of the Moon

Allah informs about the approach of the Last Hour and the imminent end and demise of the world,

(The Event ordained by Allah will come to pass, so seek not to hasten it.)(16:1),

(Draws near for mankind their reckoning, while they turn away in heedlessness.)(21:1)


Hadiths about the Last Hour
Hadiths about the Last Hour

There are several Hadiths with this meaning. Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Al-Bazzar recorded that Anas said that one day, when the sun was about to set, the Messenger of Allah gave a speech to his Companions, saying,

(By He in Whose Hand is my soul! Not much of this world is left compared to what has already passed of it, except as much as what is left in this day of yours compared to what has already passed of it.) Anas said, "We could only see a small part of the setting sun at the time.'' Another Hadith that supports and explains the above Hadith is recorded by Imam Ahmad that `Abdullah bin `Umar said, "We were sitting with the Prophet while the sun was rising above Qu`ayqa`an, after `Asr. He said,

(What remains of your time, compared to what has passed, is as long as what remains of this day compared to what has passed of it.)'' Imam Ahmad recorded that Sahl bin Sa`d said that he heard the Messenger of Allah say,

(I was sent like this with the Last Hour.) and he pointed with his middle and index finger. The Two Sahihs also recorded this Hadith. Imam Ahmad recorded that Wahb As-Suwa'i said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(I was sent just before the Last Hour, like the distance between this and this; the latter almost overtook the former.) Al-A`mash joined between his index and middle fingers while narrating this Hadith. Imam Ahmad recorded that Al-Awza`i said that Isma`il bin `Ubaydullah said, "Anas bin Malik went to Al-Walid bin `Abdul-Malik who asked him about what he heard from the Messenger of Allah about the Last Hour. Anas said, `I heard the Messenger of Allah say,

(You and the Last Hour are as close as these two (fingers).)''' Only Imam Ahmad collected this Hadith. There is proof to support these Hadiths in the Sahih listing, Al-Hashir (literally the Gatherer), among the names of the Messenger of Allah ; he is the first to be gathered, and all people will be gathered thereafter (for the Day of Judgement). Allah's statement,

(and the moon has been cleft asunder.) It occurred during the time of Allah's Messenger , according to the authentic Mutawatir Hadiths the scholars agree that the moon was cleft asunder during the lifetime of the Prophet, and it was among the clear miracles that Allah gave him. Hadiths mentioning that the Moon was split


The Narration of Anas bin Malik
The Narration of Anas bin Malik

Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas bin Malik said, "The people of Makkah asked the Prophet for a miracle and the moon was split into two parts in Makkah. Allah said,

(The Hour has drawn near, and the moon has been cleft asunder.)'' Muslim also collected this Hadith. Al-Bukhari recorded that Anas bin Malik said, "The people of Makkah asked the Messenger of Allah to produce a miracle, and he showed them the splitting of the moon into two parts, until they saw (the mount of) Hira' between them.'' This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs with various chains of narration.


The Narration of Jubayr bin Mut`im
The Narration of Jubayr bin Mut`im

Imam Ahmad recorded that Jubayr bin Mut`im said, "The moon was split into two pieces during the time of Allah's Prophet ; a part of the moon was over one mountain and another part over another mountain. So they said, `Muhammad has taken us by his magic.' They then said, `If he was able to take us by magic, he will not be able to do so with all people.''' Only Imam Ahmad recorded this Hadith with this chain of narration. Al-Bayhaqi used another chain of narration in a similar Hadith he collected in Ad-Dala'il.


The Narration of `Abdullah bin `Abbas
The Narration of `Abdullah bin `Abbas

Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "The moon was split during the time of the Prophet .'' Al-Bukhari and Muslim collected this Hadith. Ibn Jarir recorded that Ibn `Abbas commented on Allah's saying:

(The Hour has drawn near, and the moon has been cleft asunder. And if they see a sign, they turn away and say: "This is magic, Mustamir.'') "This occurred before the Hijrah; the moon was split and they saw it in two parts.''


The Narration of `Abdullah bin `Umar Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr
The Narration of `Abdullah bin `Umar Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr

Al-Bayhaqi recorded that `Abdullah bin `Umar commented on Allah's statement:

(The Hour has drawn near, and the moon has been cleft asunder.) "This occurred during the time of Allah's Messenger ; the moon was split in two parts. A part of it was before the mount and a part on the other side. The Prophet said,

(O Allah! Be witness.)'' This is the narration that Muslim and At-Tirmidhi collected. At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih.''


The Narration of `Abdullah bin Mas`ud
The Narration of `Abdullah bin Mas`ud

Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn Mas`ud said, "The moon was split in two parts during the time of Allah's Messenger, and they saw its two parts. Allah's Messenger said,

(Be witnesses.)'' Al-Bukhari and Muslim collected this Hadith. Ibn Jarir recorded that `Abdullah (Ibn Mas`ud) said, "I saw the mountain between the two parts of the moon when it was split.'' Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah said, "The moon was split during the time of Allah's Messenger and I saw the mount between its two parts.


The Stubbornness of the idolators
The Stubbornness of the idolators

Allah said,

(And if they see an Ayah), if they see proof, evidence and a sign,

(they turn away), they do not believe in it. Rather, they turn away from it, abandoning it behind their backs,

(and say: "This is magic, Mustamir.'') They say, `the sign that we saw was magic, which was cast on us.' Mustamir, means, `will soon go away', according to Mujahid, Qatadah and several others. The Quraysh said that the cleaving of the moon was false and will soon diminish and fade away,

(They denied and followed their own lusts.), they rejected the truth when it came to them, following the ignorance and foolishness that their lusts and desires called them to. Allah's statement,

(And every matter will be settled.) means, the good deeds will take their doers to all that is good and righteous, and similarly evil deeds will take their doers to all that is evil, according to Qatadah, while Ibn Jurayj said, "will settle according to its people.'' Mujahid commented on the meaning of,

(And every matter will be settled.) by saying, "On the Day of Resurrection.'' Allah's statement,

(And indeed there has come to them news); in this Qur'an, there has come to them the news of the earlier nations that disbelieved in their Messengers and the torment, punishment and affliction that befell them,

(wherein there is Muzdajar), wherein there are warnings and lessons to stop them from idolatry and persisting in denial,

(Perfect wisdom,) in that Allah guides whomever He wills and misguides whomever He wills,

(but warners benefit them not.) but the preaching of warnings does not benefit those upon whom Allah has written misery and sealed their hearts. Who can guide such people after Allah This Ayah is similar to Allah's statements,

(Say: "With Allah is the perfect proof and argument; had He so willed, He would indeed have guided you all.'')(6:149) and,

(But neither Ayat nor warners benefit those who believe not.)(10:101)

(6. So withdraw from them. The Day that the caller will call (them) to a terrible thing.) (7. They will come forth, with humbled eyes from (their) graves as if they were locusts spread abroad,) (8. Hastening towards the caller. The disbelievers will say: "This is a hard Day.'')


The terrible End the Disbelievers will meet on the Day of Resurrection
The terrible End the Disbelievers will meet on the Day of Resurrection

Allah the Exalted says, `O Muhammad, turn away from these people who, when they witness a miracle, they deny it and say that this is continuous magic.' Turn away from them and wait until,

(The Day that the caller will call (them) to a terrible thing.) to the Recompense and the afflictions, horrors and tremendous hardships that it brings forth,

(with humbled eyes), their eyes will be covered with disgrace,

(they will come forth from (their) graves as if they were locusts spread abroad.) They will gather towards the area of Reckoning in such haste and crowds, in response to the caller, as if they were crowds of locusts spreading all about. Allah said,

(Hastening) meaing hurriedly,

(towards the caller.) without being able to hesitate or slow down,

(The disbelievers will say: "This is a hard Day.''), meaing, `this is a hard, terrible, horrifying and distressful Day,'

(Truly, that Day will be a Hard Day -- far from easy for the dis- believers.) (74:9-10)

(9. The people of Nuh denied (their Messenger) before them. They rejected Our servant and said: "A madman!'' Wazdujir.) (10. Then he invoked his Lord (saying): "I have been overcome, so help (me)!'') (11. So, We opened the gates of the heaven with water Munhamir.) (12. And We caused springs to gush forth from the earth. So, the waters met for a matter predestined.) (13. And We carried him on a (ship) made of planks and nails (Dusur)) (14. Floating under Our Eyes, a reward for him who had been rejected!) (15. And indeed, We have left this as a sign. Then is there any that will remember) (16. Then how (terrible) was My torment and My warnings) (17. And We have indeed made the Qur'an easy to understand and remember; then is there anyone who will remember)


The Story of the People of Nuh and the Lesson from it
The Story of the People of Nuh and the Lesson from it

Allah the Exalted said,

(denied) `before your people, O Muhammad,'

(the people of Nuh. They rejected Our servant) means, they denied him categorically and accused him of madness,

(and said: "A madman!'' Wazdujir.) Mujahid said about Wazdujir: "He was driven out accused on account of madness.'' It was also said that Wazdujir means, he was rebuked, deterred, threatened and warned by his people saying:

("If you do not stop O Nuh, you will be among those who will be stoned.'') ﴿26:116﴾ This was said by Ibn Zayd, and it is sound.

(Then he invoked his Lord (saying): "I have been overcome, so help (me)!'') meaning, `I am weak and cannot overcome or resist my people, so help Your religion!' Allah the Exalted said,

(So, We opened the gates of the heaven with water Munhamir.) As-Suddi said about Munhamir, "It means abundant.''

(And We caused springs to gush forth from the earth.) means, from every part of the earth, and even ovens in which fire was burning -- water and springs gushed forth,

(So, the waters met), means, of the heaven and the earth,

(for a matter predestined.) Ibn Jurayj reported from Ibn `Abbas:

(So, We opened the gates of the heaven with water Munhamir), Torrential rain, the only water that fell from the sky before that day and ever since was from clouds. But the sky's gates were opened on them that day, and therefore, the water that came down was not from clouds. So both the waters (of the earth and the heaven) met according to a matter ordained.'' Allah said,

(And We carried him on a (ship) made of planks and nails (Dusur)), Ibn `Abbas, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Al-Qurazi, Qatadah and Ibn Zayd said that Dusur means nails. Ibn Jarir preferred this view. Allah's statement,

(Floating under Our Eyes), means, `by Our command and under Our protection and observation,'

(a reward for him who had been rejected!) meaning, as recompense for them because of their disbelief in Allah and as reward for Nuh, peace be upon him. Allah the Exalted said,

(And indeed, We have left this as a sign.) Qatadah said, "Allah left the ship of Nuh intact until the first generation of this Ummah were able to see it.'' However, it appears that the meaning here is that Allah kept ships as a sign. For instance, Allah the Exalted said,

(And a sign for them is that We bore their offspring in the laden ship. And We have created for them of the like thereunto, on which they ride.)(36:41-42),

(Verily, when the water rose beyond its limits, We carried you in the boat. That We might make it an admonition for you and that it might be retained by the retaining ears.)(69:11-12) Allah's statement here,

(Then is there any that will remember) means, `is there any that will receive admonition and reminder. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin Mas`ud said, "The Prophet recited to me,

(Then is there any that will remember)'' Al-Bukhari collected a similar Hadith from `Abdullah that he said, "I recited to the Prophet (?????? ??? ??????????) (then is there any that will remember) and the Prophet said,

(Then is there any that will remember)'' Allah's statement,

(Then how (terrible) was My torment and My warnings) means, `how terrible was My torment that I inflicted on those who disbelieved in Me and denied My Messengers, who did not heed to My warnings How was My help that I extended to My Messengers and the revenge exerted on their behalf,'

(And We have indeed made the Qur'an easy to understand and remember); meaning, `We have made the Qur'an easy to recite and comprehend for those who seek these traits, to remind mankind,' as Allah said,

((This is) a Book which We have sent down to you, full of blessings, that they may ponder over its Ayat, and that men of understanding may remember.)(38:29),

(So We have made this (the Qur'an) easy in your own tongue, only that you may give glad tidings to those who have Taqwa and warn with it the most quarrelsome people.)(19:97) Allah said,

(then is there any that will remember), meaning, `is there anyone who will remember through this Qur'an, which We made easy to memorize and easy to understand' Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi commented on this Ayah, "Is there anyone who will avoid evil''

(18. `Ad denied; then how was My torment and My warnings) (19. Verily, We sent against them a violently cold (Sarsar) wind on a day of calamity, continuous.) (20. Plucking out men as if they were uprooted stems of date palms.) (21. Then, how was My torment and My warnings) (22. And We have indeed made the Qur'an easy to understand and remember; then is there any that will remember)


The Story of `Ad Allah states that `Ad, the People of Hud, denied their Messenger, just as the people of Nuh did.
The Story of `Ad Allah states that `Ad, the People of Hud, denied their Messenger, just as the people of Nuh did.

So, Allah sent on them,

(against them a violently cold (Sarsar) wind), means, a bitterly cold and furious wind,

(on a day of calamity), against them, according to Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah and As-Suddi,

(continuous), upon them because the calamity, torment and destruction that they suffered in this life on that day continued with that of the Hereafter,

(Plucking out men as if they were uprooted stems of date palms.) The wind would pluck one of them and raise him high, until he could no longer be seen, and then violently send him down on his head to the ground. His head would be smashed and only his body would be left, headless,

(as if they were uprooted stems of date palms. Then, how was My torment and My warnings And We have indeed made the Qur'an easy to understand and remember; then is there any that will remember)

i(23. Thamud denied the warnings.) (24. And they said: "A man, alone among us -- shall we follow him Truly, then we should be in error and distress!'') (25. "Is it that the Reminder is sent to him alone from among us Nay, he is an insolent liar!'') (26. Tomorrow they will come to know who is the liar, the insolent one!) (27. Verily, We are sending the she-camel as a test for them. So watch them, and be patient!) (28. And inform them that the water is to be shared between (her and) them, each one's right to drink being established (by turns).) (29. But they called their comrade and he took (a sword) and killed (her).) (30. Then, how was My torment and My warnings) (31. Verily, We sent against them a single Sayhah, and they became like straw Al-Muhtazir.) (32. And indeed, We have made the Qur'an easy to understand and remember; then is there any that will remember)


The Story of Thamud
The Story of Thamud

Allah states here that the people of Thamud denied their Messenger Salih,

(And they said: "A man, alone among us -- shall we follow him Truly, then we should be in error and distress!'') They said, `We would have earned failure and loss if we all submitted to a man from among us.' They were amazed that the Reminder was sent to him alone among them, and therefore, accused him of being a liar,

(Nay, he is an insolent liar!), means, he has tresspassed the limits in his lies. Allah the Exalted responded,

(Tomorrow they will come to know who is the liar, the insolent one!), thus warning and threatening them and delivering a sure promise to them,

(Verily, We are sending the she-camel as a test for them.) To test and try the people of Thamud, Allah sent to them a superb, pregnant female camel that emerged from solid rock, according to their request, so that it would become a proof against them from Allah, the Exalted. Thereafter, they were supposed to believe in what was brought to them by Salih, peace be upon him. Allah ordered His servant and Messenger Salih,

(So watch them, and be patient!) Allah commanded, `await, O Salih, and see what will become of them and be patient; verily the better end will be yours and you will have success in this life and the Hereafter,'

(And inform them that the water is to be shared between them) one day for her to drink and one day for them to drink,

(He said: "Here is a she-camel: it has a right to drink, and you have a right to drink (water) on a day, known.'') (26:155) Allah's statement,

(each one's right to drink being established.) Mujahid said, "When she did not drink, they would drink the water, and when she drank, they would drink her milk.'' Allah the Exalted said;

(But they called their comrade and he took and killed.) According to the Scholars of Tafsir, his name was Qudar bin Salif; he was the evilest among them,

(When the most wicked man among them went forth (to kill the she-camel).)(91:12) Allah said here,

(and he took) meaning to harm,

(and killed (her). Then, how was My torment and My warnings), `I tormented them, so how was the torment I sent on them because of their disbe- lief in Me and denying My Messenger'

(Verily, We sent against them a single Sayhah, and they became like straw Al-Muhtazir.) They all perished and none of them remained. They were no more, they died out, just as plants and grass dry and die out. As-Suddi said that they became like the dry grass in the desert when it becomes burned and the wind scatters it all about. Ibn Zayd said, "The Arabs used to erect fences (Hizar, from which the word, Al-Muhtazir, is derived) made of dried bushes, around their camels and cattle, so Allah said,

(like straw Al-Muhtazir.)

(33. The people of Lut denied the warnings.) (34. Verily, We sent against them Hasib (a violent storm of stones), except the family of Lut, them We saved in the last hour of the night,) (35. As a favor from Us. Thus do We reward him who gives thanks.) (36. And he indeed had warned them of Our punishment, but they doubted the warnings!) (37. And they indeed sought to shame his guests. So, We blinded their eyes (saying), "Then taste you My torment and My warnings.'') (38. And verily, an abiding torment seized them early in the morning.) (39. Then taste you My torment and My warnings.) (40. And indeed, We have made the Qur'an easy to understand and remember; then is there any that will remember)


The Story of the People of the Prophet Lut
The Story of the People of the Prophet Lut

Allah the Exalted states that the people of Lut defied and denied their Messenger and committed sodomy, the awful immoral sin that no people in the history of mankind had committed before. This is why Allah destroyed them with a type of torment that He never inflicted upon any nation before them. Allah the Exalted commanded Jibril, peace be upon him, to raise their cities to the sky and then turn them upside down over them, followed by stones made of marked Sijjil. So He said here:

(Verily, We sent against them Hasib (a violent storm of stones) except the family of Lut, them We saved in the last hour of the night.) They left the city in the last part of the night and were saved from the torment that struck their people, none of whom believed in Lut. And even Lut's wife suffered the same end as her people. Allah's Prophet Lut left Sodom with his daughters in safety, unharmed. Allah said,

(Thus do We reward him who gives thanks. And he indeed had warned them of Our punishment,) meaning, before the torment struck his people, he warned them of Allah's torment and punishment. They did not heed the warning, nor listen to Lut, but instead doubted and disputed the warning.

(And they indeed sought to shame his guests) that is the night the angels Jibril, Mika'il and Israfil came to him in the shape of handsome young men, as a test from Allah for Lut's people. Lut hosted his guests, while his wife, the evil old one, sent a message to her people informing them of Lut's guests. They came to him in haste from every direction, and Lut had to close the door in their faces. They came during the night and tried to break the door; Lut tried to fend them off, while shielding his guests from them, saying,

(These are my daughters, if you must act (so).) (15:71), in reference to their women,

(They said: "Surely, you know that we have neither any desire nor need of your daughters!'')(11:79), meaning, `we do not have any desire for women,'

(and indeed you know well what we want!)(11:79) When the situation became serious and they insisted on coming in, Jibril went out to them and struck their eyes with the tip of his wing, causing them to lose their sight. They went back feeling for the walls to guide them, threatening Lut with what would befall him in the morning. Allah the Exalted said,

(And verily, an abiding torment seized them early in the morning.) meaning, a torment that they had no way of escaping or avoiding,

(Then taste you My torment and My warnings. And indeed, We have made the Qur'an easy to understand and remember; then is there any that will remember)

(41. And indeed, warnings came to the people of Fir`awn.) (42. (They) denied all Our signs, so We seized them with a punishment of the Almighty, All-Capable.) (43. Are your disbelievers better than these Or have you immunity in the Divine Scriptures) (44.Or say they: "We are a great multitude, victorious'') (45. Their multitude will be put to flight, and they will show their backs.) (46. Nay, but the Hour is their appointed time, and the Hour will be more grievous and more bitter.)


The Story of Fir`awn and His People
The Story of Fir`awn and His People

Allah the Exalted narrates to us the story of Fir`awn and his people. A Messenger came to them from Allah, Musa supported by his brother Harun. Their Messengers delivered good news if they believe, and a warning if they rejected the Message. Allah supported Musa and Harun with tremendous miracles and great signs, but Fir`awn and his people rejected all of them. Allah took them the way the All-Mighty, the All-Capable would; He destroyed them all leaving none surviving to tell the story of what happened to them. Advising and Threatening the Quraysh Allah said,

(Are your disbelievers) meaning, `O idolators of the Quraysh,'

(better than these) meaning better than the nations that were mentioned here, who were destroyed on account of their disbelief in the Messengers and rejecting the Scriptures. `Are you better than these'

(Or have you immunity in the Divine Scriptures), `do you have immunity from Allah that the torment and punishment will not touch you' Allah said about the Quraysh,

(Or say they: "We are a great multitude, victorious'') stating that they believed they will support each other and their great gathering will avail them against those who intend to harm them. Allah the Exalted responded,

(Their multitude will be put to flight, and they will show their backs.) affirming that their gathering shall scatter, and they shall be defeated. Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "The Prophet , while in a dome-shaped tent on the day of the battle of Badr, said,

(O Allah! I ask you for the fulfillment of Your covenant and promise. O Allah! If You wish (to destroy the believers), You will never be worshipped on the earth after today.) Abu Bakr caught him by the hand and said, `This is sufficient, O Allah's Messenger! You have sufficiently asked and petitioned Allah.' The Prophet was clad in his armor at that time and went out, saying,

(Their multitude will be put to flight and they will show their backs. Nay, but the Hour is their appointed time and that Hour will be more grievous and more bitter.)'' Al-Bukhari also recorded that Yusuf bin Mahak said, "I was with the Mother of the faithful, `A'ishah, when she said, `When I was still a young playful girl in Makkah, this Ayah was revealed to Muhammad ,

(Nay, but the Hour is their appointed time and that Hour will be more grievous and more bitter.)'' This is the abridged narration that Al-Bukhari collected, but he also collected a longer narration of it in the Book of the Virtues of the Qur'an. Muslim did not collect this Hadith.

(47. Verily, the criminals are in error and will burn.) (48. The Day they will be dragged on their faces into the Fire (it will be said to them): "Taste you the touch of Hell!'') 6(49. Verily, We have created all things with Qadar.) (50. And Our commandment is but one as the twinkling of an eye.) (51. And indeed, We have destroyed your likes; then is there any that will remember) (52. And everything they have done is noted in Az-Zubur.) (53. And everything, small and large, is written down.) (54. Verily, those who have Taqwa, will be in the midst of Gardens and Rivers.) (55.In a seat of truth, near the Muqtadir King.)


The Destination of the Criminals
The Destination of the Criminals

Allah the Exalted states that the criminals are misguided away from the truth and engulfed in confusion, because of the doubts and uncertainty they are in. This description befits every disbeliever and innovator of all types and forms of sects. Allah the Exalted said,

(The Day they will be dragged on their faces into the Fire), meaning, just as they were consumed in doubt, suspicion and hesitation, they ended up in the Fire. And just as they were misguided, they will end up being dragged on their faces, unaware of where they will be taken. They will be admonished and criticized,

("Taste you the touch of Hell!'')


Everything was created with Qadar
Everything was created with Qadar

Allah's statement,

(Verily, We have created all things with Qadar.) is similar to several other Ayat,

(He has created everything, and has measured it exactly according to its due measurements (Faqaddarahu Taqdir).) (25:2) and,

(Glorify the Name of your Lord, the Most High. Who has created (everything), and then proportioned it. And Who has measured (Qaddara) and then guided.)(87:1-3), i.e., He measured out the total sum (Qadar) of everything and then guided the creation to it. The Imams of the Sunnah relied on this honorable Ayah as evidence that Allah created the creation with destined limits before they were created. He knew everything that will occur before it occurred and recorded everything that will occur, before they occurred. They used this Ayah and similar Ayat and Hadiths to refute the Qadariyyah sect, who started their sect during the latter time of the Companions. I mentioned this subject in detail in my explanation on the chapter on faith of Sahih Al-Bukhari. I will mention here some Hadiths pertaining to this honorable Ayah. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah said, "The idolators of the Quraysh came to the Messenger of Allah arguing with him and discounting the Qadar. This Ayah was revealed,

(The Day they will be dragged on their faces into the Fire: "Taste you the touch of Hell!'' Verily, We have created all things with Qadar.)'' Muslim, At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah collected this Hadith. Al-Bazzar recorded that `Amr bin Shu`ayb said that his father narrated that his grandfather said, "These Ayat were revealed about those who deny Al-Qadar,

(Verily, the criminals are in error and will burn. The Day they will be dragged on their faces into the Fire: "Taste you the touch of Hell!'' Verily, We have created all things with Qadar.)'' Ibn Abi Hatim also recorded that Zurarah said that his father said that the Prophet recited this Ayah,

("Taste you the touch of Hell!'' Verily, We have created all things with Qadar.) and then said,

(These Ayat were revealed about some members of my Ummah. They will come before the end of time and deny Al-Qadar.) Ata' bin Abi Rabah said, "I went to Ibn `Abbas and found him drawing water from the well of Zamzam. The bottom of his clothes were wet with the water of Zamzam and I said to him, `They talked about Al-Qadar (some denied it).' He asked, `Have they done this' I said, `Yes.' He said, `By Allah! This Ayah was revealed only about them,

("Taste you the touch of Hell!'' Verily, We have created all things with Qadar.) They are the worst members of this Ummah. Do not visit those who fall ill among them or pray the Funeral prayer for those among them who die. If I saw one of them, I would pluck out his eyes with these two fingers of mine.''' Imam Ahmad recorded that Nafi` said, " `Abdullah bin `Umar had a friend in the area of Ash-Sham who used to write to him. `Abdullah bin `Umar wrote to him, `I was told that you started talking about Al-Qadar. Therefore, do not dare write to me any more. I heard the Messenger of Allah say,

(There will be some members of my Ummah who will deny Al-Qadar.)'' Abu Dawud collected this Hadith from Ahmad bin Hanbal. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin `Umar said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Every thing is predetermined, even laziness and intelligence.) Muslim collected this Hadith using a chain of narration through Imam Malik. There is also an authentic Hadith in which the Messenger of Allah said,

(Seek the help of Allah and do not succumb to feebleness. And when an affliction strikes you, say, "Allah has decreed this, and He does as He wills.'' Do not say, "Had I done this or that, this or that would have happened, because "if'' opens the door wide for the work of Ash-Shaytan.)'' In a Hadith from `Abbas, the Messenger of Allah said to him,

(Know that if the Ummah were to all gather their strength to cause you some benefit that Allah has not decreed for you, they will never be able to bring you that benefit. And if they gather their strength to bring a harm to you that Allah has not written on you, they will never be able to harm you. The pens have gone dry and the Books of Record have been closed.) Imam Ahmad recorded that Ubadah bin Al-Walid bin Ubadah said that his father said to him, "I went to `Ubadah when he was ill, and I thought that he was going to die. So I said, `O my father, advise us and make the best effort in this regard.' He said, `Help me sit up,' and when he was helped up, he said, `O my son! Know that you will not taste the delight of Faith or earn true knowledge in Allah until you believe in Al-Qadar, the good and the not so good parts of it.' I asked, `O my father! How can I know (or believe in) Al-Qadar, the good and the not so good parts of it' He said, `When you know that what has missed you, would never have come to you and what has befallen you would never have missed you. O my son! I heard the Messenger of Allah say,

(The first thing Allah created was the Pen, right after that commanded it, `Record!' and the Pen recorded everything that will occur until the Day of Resurrection.) O my son! If you die not having this belief, you will enter the Hellfire.''' At-Tirmidhi also recorded it and said: "Hasan Sahih Gharib.'' It is confirmed in Sahih Muslim from `Abdullah bin `Amr that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Verily, Allah recorded the measurements for the creatures fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and earth.) Ibn Wahb added,

(And His Throne was over the water.)(11:7) At-Tirmidhi also recorded it, and he said: "Hasan, Sahih Gharib.''


A Warning to beware of Allah's Threats
A Warning to beware of Allah's Threats

Allah said,

(And Our commandment is but one as the twinkling of an eye.) This is information about the execution of His will in His creation, just as He informed us the execution of His decree in them,

(And Our commandment is but one) meaning, `We only command a thing once, without needing to repeat the command; and whatever We command comes to existence faster than the blinking of an eye without any delay, not even for an instant.' Allah said,

(And indeed, We have destroyed your likes), i.e. the earlier nations who denied their Messengers,

(then is there any that will remember) meaning, is there any that will receive admonition by remembering the humiliation and torment that Allah decreed for them

(And a barrier will be set between them and that which they desire, as was done in the past with the people of their kind.)(34:54) Allah's statement,

(And everything they have done is noted in Az-Zubur.) meaning, everything they did is recorded in the Books of Record entrusted to the angels, peace be upon them,

(And everything, small and large,) meaning, of their actions,

(is written down.) everything that they do is recorded and written in their Record of deeds, which leave nothing, whether large or small, but it is recorded and counted. Imam Ahmad recorded that `A'ishah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(O `A'ishah! Beware of small sins, because there is someone assigned by Allah who records them.) An-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah also collected this Hadith.


The Good End for Those with Taqwa
The Good End for Those with Taqwa

Allah said,

(Verily, those who have Taqwa, will be in the midst of Gardens and Rivers.), unlike the end that the miserable are facing, loss, confusion and being dragged in the Fire on their faces, as well as being disgraced, punished and threatened. Allah said,

(In a seat of truth,) in the Dwelling of Allah's honor, encompassed by His pleasure, favors, bounties, generosity and compassion,

(near the Muqtadir King.) meaning with the Magnificent King Who created everything and measured its destiny; He is able to grant them whatever they wish and ask for. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin `Amr said that the Prophet said,

(Verily, the just will be with Allah on podiums of light, to the right of Ar-Rahman, and both of His Hands are right. They are those who are just and fair in their judgement and with their families and those whom they are responsible for.) Muslim and An-Nasa'i also recorded this Hadith.

This is the end of the Tafsir of Surah Iqtarabat (Al-Qamar). All praise and thanks are due to Allah, and success and immunity from error come from Him.